lundi 29 septembre 2008

Virgo 12

δ, 3.6, golden yellow,

although individually unnamed in our lists, was one of the ʽAwwāʼ.
On the Euphrates it was Lu Lim, the Gazelle, Goat, or Stag, — or perhaps King; and, with ε, probably Mas-tab-ba, another of the seven pairs of Twin-stars of that country. The Hindus called it Āpa, or Āpas, the Waters; and the Chinese, Tsze Seang, the Second Minister of State.
Secchi alluded to δ as bellissima, from its most beautiful banded spectrum of the 3d class of spectra, like that of α Herculis.

ε, 3.3, bright yellow,

is the Vindemiatrix of the Alfonsine Tables, whence it has descended into modern lists; but in Latin days it was Vindemiator with Columella, which is found as late as Flamsteed; Vindemitor, with Ovid and Pliny [XVIII.309]; and Provindemiator and Provindemia major, with Vitruvius [IX.4.1]; all signifying the "Grape-gatherer," from its rising in the morning just before the time of the vintage. These titles were translations of the Προτρυγετήρ, Προτρυγετής, Προτρύγετος, and Τρυγετήρ, used by Ptolemy, Plutarch, and other Greek authors, the first of these words appearing in the Phainomena, and rendered the "Fruit-plucking Herald"; but it is in a line of the poem considered doubtful; Riccioli had Protrigetrix. This profusion of titles from the earliest times indicates the singular interest with which this now inconspicuous star was regarded in classical astronomy. The Century Cyclopedia has the following note on it:
At the time when the zodiac seems to have been formed (2100 B.C.) this star would first be seen at Babylon before sunrise about August 20 or, since there is some evidence that it was then brighter than it is now, perhaps a week earlier. This would seem too late for the vintage, so that perhaps this tradition is older than the zodiac.
The classical name was translated by the Arabians Muḳdim al Ḳitāf; and another title was Almuredin, still seen for it, perhaps from Al Muridīn, Those Who Sent Forth. Traces of these words are found in the Alacast, Alcalst, Alaraph, and Almucedie of Bayer's Uranometria.
In China it was Tsze Tseang, the Second General.
On the Euphrates it may have been Kakkab Mulu-izi, the Star Man of Fire, possibly symbolizing the god Laterak, the Divine King of the Desert; although that title has been assigned to μ Virginis and δ Librae.
It marked the eastern boundary of the 11th manzil, and in astrology was a mischief-making star. It culminates on the 22d of May.

η, Variable between 3 and 4.

Zaniah is from Al Zāwiah, applied in German lists to this instead of to the stars β and γ, all of these being in the Kennel.
In China it was Tso Chih Fa, the Left-hand Maintainer of Law.
It lies on the left side of the Virgin, and just to the westward is the point of the autumnal equinox which the Chinese knew as Yih Mun, Twan Mun, or Tien Mun, Heaven's Gate. With ζ it almost exactly marks the line of the celestial equator.

θ, Triple, 4.4, 9, and 10, pale white, violet, and dusky,

is on the front of the garment, below the girdle; the components, 7ʺ.1 and 65ʺ apart; the position angle of the first two stars being 345°.
Moderns have no name for it, but in the Sūrya Siddhānta it was Apami-Atsa, the Child of the Waters.
With another adjacent, but now unidentified, star, it was known in China as Ping Taou, the Plain and Even Way.

ι, 4.2.

Syrma is from Σύρμα, used by Ptolemy to designate this star on the Train of the Virgin's robe.
With κ and φ it was mentioned in the first Arabian translation of the Syntaxis as being in the ḣimār, or "skirt," of the garment; but the translator of the Latin edition of 1515, missing the point at the first letter, read the word as ḥimār, "an ass," so that this central one of these three stars strangely appears in that work as in asino. They formed the 13th manzil, Al Ghafr, the Covering, as Smyth explains,
Because the beauty of the earth is hidden when they rise on the 18th Tishrīn, or 1st of November; others say on account of the shining of the stars being lessened as if covered;
but Kazwini,
because, when they rise, the earth robes herself in her splendour and finery, — her summer robes.
The Arabic word, however, is analogous to Σύρμα, and so may have been taken from Ptolemy; although Al Bīrūnī quoted from Al Zajjāj Al Ghafar, the Tuft in the Lion's Tail, which it may have marked in the figure of the ancient Asad. Another signification of the word Ghafr is the "Young Ibex." Al Bīrūnī also said that the Arabs considered this the most fortunate of their lunar stations, as lying between the evils of the Lion's teeth and claws on one side and the tail and venom of the Scorpion on the other, and quoted from a Rajaz poet:
The best night forever
Lies between Al Zubānah and Al Asad;
adding that the horoscope of the Prophet lay here, and that the date of the birth of Moses coincided with it.
As a lunar station these stars were the Sogdian Sarwa and the Khorasmian Shushak, the Leader; the Persian Huçru, the Good Goer; and the Coptic Khambalia, Crooked-clawed, λ being substituted for φ; and it is said that they were the Akkadian Lu Lim, the He Goat, Gazelle, or Stag, the original perhaps also meaning "King," and employed for δ. ι alone, according to Hommel, was the Death Star, Mulu Bat.

ι, κ, and υ constituted the 13th sieu, Kang, a Man's Neck, κ being the determining star; while, with the preceding station, the united group was Sheu sing, as Edkins writes it, the Star of Old Age; and, with others near, it may have been included in the Tien Mun mentioned at the star η.
μ, a 3.9‑magnitude, was Al Achsasi's Rijl al ʽAwwāʼ, the Foot of the Barker. It has been included with δ Librae in the Akkadian lunar asterism Mulu Izi, a title also applied to ε; the Sogdian Gasarwa, and the Khorasmian Sara-fsariwa, both signifying the "One next to the Leader" — i.e. next to the lunar asterism, ι, κ, and λ.
ν, ξ, ο, and π, forming the head of Virgo, were the Chinese Nuy Ping, the Inner Screen; ρ was Kew Heang, the Nine Officers of State, in which some smaller stars were included; σ and τ, Tien Teen, the Heavenly Fields; while χ and ψ, with others adjacent, were Tsin Teen; all of these stars being of 4th of the 6th magnitudes.

Aucun commentaire: