α, 2.9, bright orange.
Menkar of the Alfonsine Tables of 1521, Scaliger's Monkar, and now sometimes Menkab, from Al Minḣar, the Nose, still is the popular, but inappropriate name, for it marks Monster's open jaws. It is the prominent star in the northeastern part of the constellation, and culminates on the 21st of December.
Al Kaff al Jidhmah, found on the Borgian globe, is Ulug Beg's and Al Tizini's designation for it, taken from that for all the stars in the head; but modern lists apply this solely to γ.
In astrological days it portended danger from great beasts, disgrace, ill fortune, and illness to those born under its influence.
In China α, γ, δ, λ, μ, ν, ο, ξ1, and ξ2 were Tseen Kwan, Heaven's Round Granary.
The other 'neath the dusky Monster's tail.
β, 2.4, yellow.
Deneb Kaitos is from the Arabian Al Dhanab al Ḳaiṭos al Janūbīyy, the Tail of the Whale towards the South, i.e. the Southern Branch of the Tail. Chrysococca synonymously had Οὖρα τοῦ Καίτου, arbitrarily formed from the Arabic; and the Alfonsine Tables of 1521 called it Denebcaiton.
Very differently it was the Arabs' Al Ḍifdiʽ al Thānī, the Second Frog, that we see in the present Difda, Latinized as Rana Secunda; the star Fomalhaut being Al Ḍifdiʽ al Awwal, the First Frog.
In China it was Too Sze Kung, Superintendent of Earthworks.
Although below it in lettering, this star is now brighter than α, yet both were registered γ — i.e. of the 3d magnitude — by Ptolemy; and Miss Clerke asserts that this inversion of brilliancy took place during the last century. It is nearly 40° southwest from α, culminating on the 21st of November.
One third of the way towards β Andromedae is a group of unnamed stars from which Smyth said that a new asterism, Testudo, was proposed.